YAMUNA

 

 

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COIN HUNTING - After the idol ceremonies, people sift through river silt searching for coins.

 

 

The Yamuna originates from the Yamunotri glacier in the Lower Himalayas, Yamuna is the largest tributary of the Ganges. It flows through several states of North India, and creates a very fertile and alluvial region at its confluence with the Ganges.

 

It is considered to be the second most polluted river in India after the Ganges. Millions of tons of household garbage is discharged into the river each day, and every attempt to curb this has failed till so far. Traces of poisonous insecticides have also been found in the Yamuna, recently. Extreme urbanization and soil erosion are also serious causes of concern.

 

The Yamuna, also called Jammuna, is the second largest tributary river of the Ganges that flows through Indo-Gangetic Plains.

The water is clear and blue until the River reaches Haryana. Thereafter, tons of untreated sewage, industrial waste, domestic waste, and dumped garbage turn it into one of the world’s most polluted rivers.

 

 

   

 

 

Urbanization and industrialization has literally killed River Yamuna. New Delhi, that generates 1,900 million liters per day of sewage, dumps 58 percent of its waste into Yamuna. Untreated waste that flows into it from several cities along its banks in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh is Yamuna’s biggest enemies.

In Uttar Pradesh, the river is almost invisible, covered with pollutants and foam. The government has spent Rs 1,514.70 crore under Yamuna Action Plan Phase-I and Phase-II for creation of new sewage treatment capacity of 942.25 million liters per day in Delhi, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. However, the scenario doesn’t seem to have changed in 2015.

The Yamuna, by the time it flows through Agra, has nearly 50 times more biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) than the permissible limit. The Central Water Commission (CWC) has declared that the river water at Agra is safe neither for irrigation nor for domestic use. Water in the river, now polluted beyond repair, an official said, is also contaminating ground water.

The current level of BOD in Yamuna is 55 milligram per litre (mg/L), which is enormously high as compared to the permissible limit of 2 mg/L. This contamination level is irreversible. Water is unusable, both for irrigation and drinking. In fact, polluted water from the Yamuna is also partially responsible for the contamination of ground water in Agra, as the TDS (total dissolved salt) in water has jumped to almost 1500 mg/L from 500 mg/L, three times the permissible limit.

 

An alarming amount of polluted water is supplied to the Agra canal for irrigating the agricultural lands of 638 villages.

 

 

 

 

JAN 2018 HIGH COURT PLEA

The Delhi High Court on Monday asked the Delhi Jal Board (DJB) to chalk out an action plan to tackle sewage problem in the Capital after it was informed that 45 per cent of the city is not connected to the sewage system.

A bench of Acting Chief Justice Gita Mittal and Justice C Hari Shankar issued the directions after advocate SB Tripathi filed the petition seeking direction to the Centre to provide financial assistance to the DJB to lay down sewage system in the remaining 45 per cent areas of Delhi.

The plea referred to an affidavit filed in the high court in 2016 where it was admitted that only 55 per cent Delhi population is covered with sewage facility. As a result, the waste from these 45 per cent houses is not recycled and it flows in the drain finally making its way into the Yamuna River.

"Irrespective of the fact as to whether an area has sewage facility or not, sewage is generated from every area where people are living and only 55 per cent sewage is being recycled and the remaining 45 per cent sewage of unsewered areas is flowing into drains and ultimately into the river," it added.

The petition also suggested that the DJB can seek financial assistance from the Centre under the Namami Gange Programme or Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.

 

 

 


RELIGIOUS CEREMONY 2018

In what has become a sad annual feature, the Yamuna is once again in a terrible state as a result of the immersion after the Durga puja festivities. There more than 200 puja pandals in Delhi and in spite of the guidelines issued by the National Green Tribunal (NGT), most continue to flout them with impunity. It is the same case with other festivals and immersions such as Ganesh pujas as well. The NGT guidelines for idol immersion state that only clay should be used for idol making, and not baked clay or plaster of paris, etc. It also discourages the painting of idols, and goes on to say that the “use of toxic and nonbiodegradable chemical dyes for painting idols should b e strictly prohibited.” All cloth, flowers, decorations made of paper, plastic and other non biodegradable materials should be removed before immersion. The 22-page document lists in detail the rules to be followed, the responsibilities of the state pollution control boards (SPCBs) and the pollution control committees (PCCs).

Since there is no testing of materials that are used in the manufacture of idols and puja committees are not under pressure to conform to the guidelines, every year the problem recurs, causing even more damage to a river that is already in its death throes. There are easily implementable solutions to the problem of festival debris in the river. Since it is impossible to police every last inch of the river to ensure that immersion of idols is taking place with adequate ecological sensitivity, it would be prudent for implementation agencies to take with them as partners the Durga puja committees and the idol manufacturers. Ensuring that harmful chemical dyes and non-biodegradable materials are not used in the manufacture of idols will be an excellent step in ensuring that they don’t end up in the river.

 

 

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RIVER

COUNTRY

POPULATION

PLASTIC

-

-

-

-

Amazon

Brazil/Peru/ Ecuador

-

1

Amur

Russia/China

-

2

Brantas

Indonesia

-

3

Buriganga

Bangladesh

-

4

Citarum

Indonesia

-

5

Congo

West Central Africa

-

6

Cross

Nigeria/Cameroon

-

7

Cuyahoga 

USA

-

8

Ganges

India/Bangladesh

-

9

Danube

Europe

-

10

Dong

China

-

11

Hai He (Sea)

China

-

12

Hanjiang

China

-

13

Huangpu

China

-

14

Irrawaddy

Myanmar

-

15

Imo

Nigeria

-

16

Indus

Pakistan/Himalayan

-

17

Irtysh

Russia/China/Kazakhstan

-

18

Jordan

Israel

-

19

Kwa Ibo

Nigeria

-

20

Lena

Siberia

-

21

Magdalena

Columbia

-

22

Mantanza-Riachuelo

Argentina

-

23

Marilao

Philippines

-

24

Mississippi

USA

-

25

Mekong

Thailand/Laos/Vietnam

-

26

Niger

Guinea/Nigeria

-

27

Nile

Egypt

-

28

Parana

S America/Brazil

-

29

Pasig

Philippines

-

30

Progo

Java/Indonesia

-

31

Sarno

Italy

-

32

Serayu

Indonesia

-

33

Solo

Java/Indonesia

-

34

Tamsui

Taiwan

-

35

Xi 

China

-

36

Yamuna

India

-

37

Yangtze

China

-

38

Yellow/Huang He

China

-

30

Zhujiang/Pearl

China

-

40

 

 

Around ninety percent (90%) of plastics in the ocean comes from just 10 rivers. Nine of these rivers are located in Asia and one of them borders Thailand.

 

The top 10 most polluted rivers in the world have one thing in common – they are located alongside large human populations with poor waste management (PWM) systems.

 

Every year the world, produces 300 million tonnes of plastics, and 8.8 million tonnes of these are dumped into the oceans. That’s about 40 billion plastic bottles, 100 billion single-use plastic bags, and 522 million personal care items.

If you know a seriously polluted river, or one that should be a candidate on a bigger list, please contact Cleaner Ocean Foundation.

 

The rivers noted, added to hundreds of other lesser contributors feed the five ocean gyres to poison marine life and cover the seabed in a mountain of plastic.

 

1. North Atlantic Gyre

2. South Atlantic Gyre

3. Indian Ocean Gyre

4. North Pacific Gyre

5. South Pacific Gyre

 

 

Map of the most plastic polluted rivers in the world

 

JAMBECK 2010 - Global map with each country shaded according to the estimated mass of mismanaged plastic waste [millions of metric tons (MT)] generated in 2010 by populations living within 50 km of the coast. 192 countries were considered. Countries not included in the study are shaded white.

 

 

LINKS & REFERENCE

 

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This website is provided on a free basis as a public information service. copyright © Cleaner Oceans Foundation Ltd (COFL) (Company No: 4674774) 2019. Solar Studios, BN271RF, United Kingdom. COFL is a company without share capital.

 

THE YAMUNA  IS ONE OF THE MOST POLLUTED RIVERS IN THE WORLD A TO Z INDEX PLASTIC WASTE